Do you believe Wolfram is merely a butler? What is required of the butler to the Emerald Witch is not the ability to set a dinner table. It is the ability to fight second to none!
Grete Hilbard referring to Wolfram[1]

Lieutenant Wolfram "Wolf" Gelzer (ウォルフラム・ゲルツァー, Uorufuramu Gerutsuā) is a high-ranking officer in the German military, and assumes the role of Sieglinde Sullivan's manservant, as part of the Emerald Witch Education Project.

After the project is terminated and the truth is exposed, Wolfram chooses to remain as Sieglinde's butler and moves to London with her.[3]


Wolfram is a large man who possesses a sturdy, muscular physique. He has short, shaggy hair and sideburns.


Wolfram is a determined and strong-willed lieutenant. He is an excellent fighter, and is considered the best within the German military.[4] He can be relatively belligerent, as he had immediately approached Sebastian Michaelis in a hostile, aggressive manner upon his unbidden arrival to Wolfsschlucht.[5]

Furthermore, Wolfram is extremely precise, as shown when he meticulously weighed each ingredient according to the manual while cooking.[6] He, rather unconventionally, harbors the tendency to prepare a meal one dish at a time, despite how time-consuming the predisposition is, which suggests a simpleminded nature; he claimed that he would get confused if he were to do things concurrently.[7] In fact, Sebastian had stated that Wolfram does not do anything useless, but yet he still manages to be "absolutely inefficient."[8]

Wolfram cares for Sieglinde Sullivan profoundly, and is overridden with guilt for deceiving her and isolating her from the real world. He is so staunchly loyal to Sieglinde, that he is willing to risk his life, disobey military orders, and kill other soldiers for the sake of her safety, as indicated when he shot Soldier Grete Hilbard so Sieglinde can safely escape from the Werewolves' Forest.[9]


My world consisted solely of grey. Ever since I could remember, it was all grey, the people and the scenery alike. I never knew colours other than grey existed.
Wolfram on his past[10]

Wolfram was trained in the German military from a very young age. The training was intense and rigorous. He was well-aware that it was his duty to protect Germany, though he was not emotionally driven to do so, for he did not feel attached to the country—or anything in particular, deeming his world grey and colorless. One day, Wolfram, then a second lieutenant, was assigned to the special army for the top-secret Emerald Witch Education Project; for the mission, he was given the name Lieutenant Wolfram Gelzer.[11]

Initially, Wolfram felt disgruntled. His training was completely focused on the techniques of killing people, and yet, for the mission, he was responsible for watching and protecting the Emerald Witch Sieglinde Sullivan; in case of emergencies, he must kill her. Gradually, Wolfram grew fond of Sieglinde, and was able to perceive the "bright colors" of the world through her; moved by Sieglinde's drawing of them together, Wolfram realized that, for the first time, he truly felt the desire to protect something, and that was Sieglinde.[12]

Wolfram was present on the day Sieglinde Sullivan was named the Emerald Witch, and was the one to bind her feet.[13]


Emerald Witch Arc

Wolfram's menacing face.

Wolfram is carrying Sieglinde Sullivan while she scolds her villagers for making a ruckus upon the unwarranted arrivals of Ciel, Sebastian, Finnian, Baldroy, Mey-Rin, Snake, and Tanaka.[14] Wolfram aggressively confronts Sebastian, earning himself a rebuke from Sieglinde. He, then, tells them that visitors are not allowed to stay at their village, Wolfsschlucht. He voices his surprise to the notion that they have entered the village unscathed, as on the outskirts roams a werewolf which is said to protect the Werewolves' Forest.[15]

Hilde demands for the visitors to be disposed of, and Sieglinde quickly whispers in Wolfram's ear. Wolfram, then, although shocked, relays the message that Sieglinde is requesting for them to stay at the Emerald Castle overnight. He leads them there and guides Ciel and Sebastian to the dining room upstairs. He puts Sieglinde down on a chair, and sets off to prepare dinner and to show the servants their rooms.[16]

Wolfram takes a long time to make dinner, as when Sebastian walks into the kitchen, he has only just finished weighing the ingredients according to the manual. Sebastian insists that he hurries, for Sieglinde is hungry. Hearing this, Wolfram accepts Sebastian's assistance. When Wolfram is clueless as to how to knead the dough for the bread, Sebastian assures him that he will handle that part. Sebastian, next, asks him if he has prepared the soup, to which Wolfram responds the negative, stating that he likes to do things one by one or he would confuse himself; Sebastian decides to help him with this aspect of the meal as well.[17]

Afterward, Wolfram and Sebastian serve dinner to Sieglinde and Ciel. Sieglinde is greatly impressed and praises Wolfram, prompting him to clarify that Sebastian has lent him a hand. In the midst of dinner, however, Hilde abruptly barges in, announcing that the werewolf has appeared.[18]

Hearing this, Wolfram and the others head to the plaza of Wolfsschlucht, where they discover a female villager viciously wounded by the werewolf. After helping Sieglinde treat her injury, Wolfram orders the other villagers to make more light, and warns them to not enter the Werewolves' Forest alone.[19] Later, Wolfram comes in Ciel's bedroom to take the sleeping Sieglinde. He tells Ciel and Sebastian to forget what Sieglinde has said and leave at dawn.[20]

Later, following the revelation that Sebastian and Ciel have been affected by the curse, Wolfram helps Sieglinde with the preparations for the Purification Ceremony.[21] Afterward, Sebastian presents to Sieglinde a luxurious meal as compensation. Wolfram interrupts their conversation to rebuke him for entering the Werewolves' Forest, proclaiming that werewolves do not randomly hurt people. Sieglinde, then, orders him to cease his aggression. Sebastian calmly blames his own curiosity, saying that he has seen too many demons and Grim Reapers and, thus, wanted to see what "kind of person" the werewolf was. At Wolfram's and Sieglinde's puzzlement, he casually brushes the topic aside; he guarantees to do whatever Sieglinde wishes as long as she can cure Ciel, which surprises Wolfram.[22]

When Sieglinde requests that Sebastian should become her butler, Wolfram expresses his strong disapproval, but she simply asserts that it is her decision and that Wolfram can learn from the "more capable" Sebastian.[23] While Sebastian is preparing morning tea, Wolfram glares at him resentfully. He follows him to Sieglinde's bedroom, where Sebastian wakes Sieglinde with tea; impressed, Sieglinde orders Wolfram to take note. When Sieglinde demands to wear foreign clothes, both Wolfram and Hilde are shocked. At breakfast, when Sebastian condemns Sieglinde's poor table manners and Wolfram indignantly protests as a result, Sebastian admonishes him, saying that being overly affectionate and spoiling his master is not what a butler is supposed to do.[24]

Later, Sieglinde insists on learning the English language from Sebastian. Wolfram leaves them be, and encounters Hilde, Grete Hilbard, and Anne Drewanz, who ask to speak privately with him. Hilde scolds Wolfram for allowing "outsiders" to stay, but he responds that he cannot do anything about it, as it is Sieglinde's wish. Hilde and the other girls, then, depart out of frustration, warning him not to come to seek them if the matter were to get out of hand and leaving Wolfram in a troubled state.[25]

Sometime later, Wolfram is present while Sieglinde informs the rest of the Phantomhive servants that Ciel is recovering well. He notices Sieglinde's lack of enthusiasm when Baldroy opts that they return to Phantomhive Manor after Ciel can move around again. Upon Wolfram's suggestion, Sebastian helps out with dinner. In the kitchen, Sebastian announces that they are out of white wine for cooking, and Wolfram tells him that the wine cellar is down the stairs, all the way back on the right.[26]

Later, Wolfram appears behind Sebastian and Snake, who have managed to open up a secret passageway. Irate, he ushers them away and forbids them from coming back.[27] Subsequently, Wolfram goes with Sebastian and the other Phantomhive servants into Ciel's bedroom, after a werewolf has attacked Finnian and Ciel there. He informs Sieglinde of the incident, and she orders him to prepare the Emerald Witch's "service." Wolfram guides Sieglinde down the secret passageway, and she proceeds to cast a spell to soothe the werewolves' anger.[28]

At a Wolfsschlucht meeting, with Sieglinde present and listening to the villagers' urges to banish the outsiders, Hilde asks Wolfram if he has forgotten his "duty" involving the outsiders, but he assures her that he has not, as he is the Emerald Witch's butler.[29] Later, he and Anne return to the Emerald Castle's kitchen, where the Phantomhive servants are. He tells Sebastian that he and the other "outsiders" will have to leave the next day to avoid angering the werewolf any further.[30]

Later, Wolfram goes to inform Sieglinde that it is almost dinnertime, and finds her reading a book given to her by Sebastian, to his dissatisfaction. He inflexibly opposes her wish to see Ciel and the rest off the next day when they depart. When she falls down, he rushes to look after her; he, then, embraces her and apologizes while crying. Sieglinde promises to complete the Ultimate Spell in order to protect them all.[31]

Sometime later, Wolfram goes into Sieglinde's bedroom and advises her to sleep, but Sieglinde declares that she is ready for her duty.[32] After she carries out the Ultimate Spell, she loses consciousness and wakes up in her bedroom, with Wolfram standing beside her. He thanks her for her hard work, and becomes sad upon seeing her bound feet. Sieglinde asks him if he remembers the day she was named the Emerald Witch. Wolfram says he can never forget, as she had screamed while getting her feet bound, and she tells him to not make "such a gloomy face," as she is proud of her bound feet, which proves that she is the descendant of the Great Emerald Witch. She states that she is glad she managed to fulfill one of her responsibilities as the Emerald Witch that day and asks if Wolfram thinks her mother, the previous Emerald Witch, whose face she no longer remembers, would be happy as well, and he assures her that that is the case. Sieglinde, then, enthusiastically suggests that they go outside to learn more things since she has completed the Ultimate Spell. Wolfram sternly tells her she cannot, since they are not allowed to leave the wolves' valley by law. He urges her to rest and leaves.[33]

Hilde Dickhaut speaks to Wolfram about disposing of Sieglinde.

Wolfram is woken up by an emergency signal and rushes into Sieglinde's bedroom, only to find that she is missing.[34] He runs to the secret laboratory at the bottom of the Emerald Castle and discovers a sobbing Sieglinde next to Ciel and Sebastian while the village crone reveals to her the truth. Sieglinde yells at Wolfram for deceiving her.[35] As Ciel pulls Sieglinde along and into the elevator to escape, Wolfram attempts to stop them but fails.[36] He hastily goes in another direction to pursue them and encounters Hilde on the stairs. He tells her that Ciel and Sebastian have kidnapped Sieglinde, and that Sieglinde has found out the truth. He is about to head to Area A23 but halts immediately when Hilde refers to him as Lieutenant Wolfram Gelzer. Hilde reminds him that he must dispose of Sieglinde, in case of an emergency.[37]

Chaos ensues when the B4 Factory under the Emerald Castle is caught on fire. After learning that the formulas of SuLIN have been burned, Wolfram, addressing Hilde as Major Hilde Dickhaut, says that their priority should be to capture Sieglinde; Hilde agrees. Anne and Grete inform Hilde that they are prepared to operate the new experimental weapon; Wolfram is surprised that they are planning resort to that particular method. Hilde, then, orders Wolfram, Anne, and Grete to kill Sieglinde if she leaves the Werewolves' Forest before she can be retrieved.[38]

Wolfram leads the main squad into the Werewolves' Forest.[39] Snake releases snakes down on Wolfram and the other soldiers. Soon, Wolfram engages in a gunfight with Baldroy, while Snake runs off with Sieglinde. Baldroy uses a marmalade can to induce an explosion, but Wolfram emerges, unscathed, and battles Baldroy. He, then, charges toward Snake, causing Snake and Sieglinde to fall to the ground. Wolfram runs to Sieglinde, only to discover that it is Ciel in disguise; Ciel has Wolfram at gunpoint.[40]

Ciel shoots at Wolfram, who manages to dodge the bullet, though the right side of his face is wounded as a result. Wolfram, then, punches Ciel and forces him to drop his gun. While strangling the Ciel he has pinned to the ground with one hand and pointing a gun at him with the other, Wolfram bemoans the event of Ciel arriving at Wolfsschlucht and his influence on Sieglinde.[41]

Wolfram is about to shoot Ciel, but his gun is parried by Diedrich's knife.[42] Wolfram and Diedrich struggle to gain the upper hand in their battle. Diedrich calls for an attack, which causes Wolfram to look apprehensively in the direction Diedrich had turned to. Diedrich seizes the opportunity to kick Wolfram and shoot his left wrist. An injured Wolfram jumps back and hides behind a tree, to avoid a bombardment of bullets.[43] Suddenly, a detrimental blast rips through the forest; shortly thereafter, a Panzer emerges.[44]

Wolfram is shot by Hilde Dickhaut.

After the Panzer fires again, Wolfram grows angry; he realizes the army's overt disregard for the safety of Sieglinde and their intentions to kill her. He stands up, despite his injuries, and heads off in a certain direction.[45]

Wolfram arrives at the military railway and appears to aim at Sieglinde with his gun, but he is actually targeting Grete, who he successfully shoots and kills. Wolfram begins to run after Sieglinde, who is aboard a moving train. He apologizes for lying to her and assures that she does not have to forgive them. Wolfram is, then, shot by Hilde, who Sebastian kills shortly after. Wolfram falls down, and tells Sieglinde that she is not a witch—she is merely a normal girl.[46]

On Ciel's order, Sebastian picks up Wolfram and puts him on the train, where Sieglinde tends to his injuries. She warns him that she would not forgive him if he were to die then and there. Wolfram becomes unconscious, but his bleeding has stopped.[47]

Wolfram is brought to Weizsäcker, one of the castles owned by Diedrich's family, where he is tended to.[48] Though Wolfram is bedridden, his doctor affirms that he is recovering swiftly to Ciel, Sebastian, and Sieglinde when they visit. Sebastian tells Wolfram that he saved him because Ciel ordered him to. Ciel explains that Wolfram's duty was unfinished since Sieglinde still needed someone to look after her. Wolfram begins to apologize to Sieglinde, but she assures him that she has forgiven him and that he can continue being her butler. Wolfram hugs her and agrees to venture into the outside world alongside her.[49]

At the train station, Ciel, Sebastian, a disguised Sieglinde and Wolfram, and the rest of the Phantomhive household servants prepare to leave Germany. Sieglinde and Wolfram are dazzled with London's appearance. Sebastian reminds them to speak in English and learns that Wolfram is unable to. The Phantomhive household servants head to the townhouse first. Meanwhile, Ciel, Sebastian, Sieglinde, and Wolfram visit Nina Hopkins's tailor shop. On Ciel's request, Nina drags Sieglinde away to measure her. Her assistants, Meg and Augusta, meanwhile, measure Wolfram. Sieglinde later presents herself to Ciel, Sebastian, and Wolfram with her new bob cut, shocking them.[50]

They arrive at Ciel's townhouse. Sebastian is harsh while teaching Sieglinde table manners and the like. Wolfram is angry at Sebastian, but Sebastian shuts him up by telling him to complain to him in English or else he would not listen to him. Wolfram anxiously flips through the dictionary. Every time Wolfram tries to yell at Sebastian for being tough on Sieglinde, Sebastian would tell him to speak in English, forcing Wolfram to flip through the dictionary.[51]

The next day, Sieglinde practices curtsying with Wolfram's support. After that session, Sebastian decides that it is time to work on their pronunciation. He puts a contraption in both of their mouths. The purpose of the contraption is to force their mouths to remain open so that they can view the movements of their tongues as they hone their pronunciation. This section lasts for an hour, and then Sieglinde flips out.[52]

Later, Elizabeth suggests that they all do the lessons together so that Sieglinde will not be the only one suffering through it all. Wolfram sits by Sieglinde as she laughs at Ciel's clumsiness.[53]

Blue Cult Arc

The night before Sieglinde's expected audience with Queen Victoria, Wolfram and Sieglinde talk with Ciel and Sebastian at the Phantomhive townhouse. Ciel orders Sieglinde to give the Queen the process to make mustard gas, to Wolfram's and Sieglinde's surprise. Wolfram is worried that Sieglinde will be exploited again, as she was by the German military, and Sebastian points out that it is, truly, Sieglinde's choice whether or not she is used or uses others. Ciel interrupts Wolfram before he could argue, saying that because he is Sieglinde's friend, he will not stop here if she chooses to move to someplace obscure and live as a doctor with Wolfram. He adds that, because he is her friend, he knows that Sieglinde will never be able to stop studying and searching for ways to gain new knowledge. At the mention of new knowledge, Sieglinde becomes excited, and Wolfram notices her fascination. Ciel asserts that she will need a lot of money for new knowledge and that Wolfram is too awkward to raise that kind of money, much to Wolfram's chagrin.[54] Ciel, then, makes Sieglinde vow to always keep SuLIN a secret, and encourages her to use everyone else in order to obtain the future she desires.[55]

The following day, at the outside of Buckingham Palace, a tensed and anxious Sieglinde is greeted by Charles Grey and Charles Phipps, who subsequently lead her, Wolfram, and Ciel into the palace, up the stairs, and down a hallway. They open double doors to a room where Queen Victoria and her aide John Brown are waiting. Wolfram lowers Sieglinde to the ground, and she curtsies to the Queen. Pleased, the Queen compliments her curtsy and welcomes her to England. Both Wolfram and Ciel are relieved that things have progressed smoothly thus far. They move to a table filled with cakes and tea. After Ciel informs the Queen about his trip to the Werewolves' Forest, the Queen asks if Sieglinde can create more powerful things than mustard gas, a question to which Sieglinde responds the negative. Ciel assures the Queen that if Sieglinde worked for the sake of her subjects, wonderful results are guaranteed. Sieglinde promises to prove her worth, and the Queen is delighted. When the Queen mentions her late husband Prince Albert, she sobs, and John is compelled to comfort her with his Albert puppet, to Wolfram's and Sieglinde's astonishment; Ciel tells them that this happens often, so they should disregard it.[56]

After the meeting is over, Wolfram carries Sieglinde outside, and they and Ciel reunite with Sebastian. The four of them return to the Phantomhive townhouse.[57]

Occasionally, Queen Victoria, accompanied by Grey and Phipps, would make personal visits to Sieglinde with Wolfram present.[58]

One night, someone knocks on the door to the new house Wolfram and Sieglinde reside in, enraging Wolfram, who barks at them for coming late at night. He, then, discovers that Sebastian and Ciel are visiting. When Sebastian tells Wolfram that Ciel must be inspected by Sieglinde, Sieglinde emerges and leads them into a room, where she conducts her examination and concludes that Ciel has not been poisoned. Wolfram has an idea but struggles to convey it in English, and so Sebastian tells him to speak in German. Wolfram, then, makes the conjecture that Ciel became anaemic because his blood was taken from him rather than something being injected in him. He adds that his blood being drawn may be for blood transfusion, explaining that he learned about it during his time in the army and that the army is actively attempting to perfect the process of blood transfusion since the success rate of it is extremely low. After deducing that the Sphere Music Hall must be practicing blood transfusions on its attendees, Ciel departs from the manor with Sebastian, determined to expose the "foul scheme."[59]

Later, Sebastian visits, dropping off bottles of blood from Sphere Music Hall for Sieglinde to analyze. Wolfram watches from a distance as Sieglinde excitedly examines said bottles.[60]

After some time, Sieglinde takes a blood sample from Wolfram and experiments with it. She, then, makes an important discovery regarding the different compositions of blood, and how that affects whether or not a blood transfusion will be successful. Wolfram concludes from her observations that the people at Sphere Music Hall should have already succeeded with their blood transfusion experiments. Sieglinde agrees, stating that it should no longer be necessary to collect so many blood samples, and wonders aloud where the enormous quantity of blood could be going to.[61]

Later, Sieglinde comments on the rain, just before someone knocks on the door. Wolfram opens it and discovers that it is Sebastian and Ciel, who drop off an injured Soma Asman Kadar for Sieglinde to tend to. Ciel warns Sieglinde to not carelessly open the door for anyone, even if it is him.[62]

Soma wakes up and asks Wolfram and Sieglinde where Agni is. Upon learning that Agni is dead, Soma bursts into tears, to Wolfram's and Sieglinde's distress. Soma, then, vows to avenge Agni, and reveals that he saw who attacked him.[63]


  • (Referring to Sieglinde Sullivan) "My lady. Meeting you, I came to know for the first time that the world possesses countless brilliant hues. And I learned how it feels to want to protect something precious . . . and what it means to have something to fight for."[64]



  • The name "Wolfram" is composed of the Germanic elements wolf ("wolf") and hramn ("raven").[65]
  • "Wolfram" (or "volfram") is also the name of the element Tungsten in most European languages, especially in those of Germanic, Spanish, and Slavic origin. The name is derived from the mineral wolframite, from which the chemical symbol W originates. "Wolframite" comes from the Germanic wolf ("wolf") and the Middle High German rām ("soot, cream, filth");[66] Johan Gottschalk Wallerius gave this name to tungsten in 1747.[67][68]

Out of Universe

  • Yana Toboso and her assistants call Wolfram "Yaa-san" because he says "ja" ("yes") so often.[70]


  1. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 100, pages 9-10
  2. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 119, page 21
  3. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 106, page 10
  4. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 100, page 10
  5. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, page 4
  6. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, page 20
  7. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, pages 22-23
  8. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, page 22
  9. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 103, page 26
  10. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 104, page 4
  11. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 104, pages 2-4
  12. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 104, pages 4-7
  13. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 96, page 15
  14. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 87, pages 17-19
  15. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, pages 3-7
  16. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, pages 8-15
  17. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, pages 20-23
  18. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 88, pages 24-26
  19. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 89, pages 3-10
  20. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 89, pages 27-28
  21. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 90, pages 6-8
  22. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 90, pages 28-34
  23. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 91, page 5
  24. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 91, pages 10-16
  25. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 91, pages 22-23
  26. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 92, pages 16-19
  27. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 92, pages 23-24
  28. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 92, pages 28-35
  29. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 93, pages 19-20
  30. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 93, pages 27-30
  31. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 94, pages 6-11
  32. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 96, page 7
  33. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 96, pages 12-18
  34. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 98, page 2
  35. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 98, pages 12-13
  36. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 98, page 15
  37. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 98, pages 17-19
  38. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 99, pages 25-27
  39. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 100, page 4
  40. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 100, pages 5-16
  41. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 101, pages 3-6
  42. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 101, pages 7-8
  43. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 101, pages 14-16
  44. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 101, pages 19-23
  45. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 102, pages 9-10
  46. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 103, pages 22-35
  47. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 104, pages 11-14
  48. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 105, pages 13-16
  49. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 106, pages 5-12
  50. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 107, pages 2-15
  51. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 107, pages 16-21
  52. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 107, pages 23-26
  53. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 107, page 33
  54. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 108, pages 9-12
  55. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 108, pages 12-15
  56. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 108, pages 2-19
  57. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 108, page 20
  58. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 114, page 18
  59. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 114, pages 14-26
  60. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 117, page 22
  61. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 119, pages 23-25
  62. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 129, pages 4-6
  63. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 129, pages 17-22
  64. Kuroshitsuji manga; Chapter 104, page 7
  65. Behind the Name — Wolfram
  66. Kluge, Friedrich (2002). Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 24th edition, Walter de Gruyter, 995–996. ISBN 978-3-110-17473-1
  67. Wikipedia:Tungsten
  68. Wikipedia:Wolframite
  69. June 2015 Issue of Square Enix's GFantasy Magazine
  70. Downstairs with Kuroshitsuji, Volume VIII


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